was ranked 140 out of 144 countries assessed.30 Similarly, a World Bank study has ranked Iran fourth lowest in its 2019 Women, Business and the Law index.31 Unsurprisingly, unemployment is more prevalent among women compared to men in Iran. 32 There are no reports that indicate the existence of effective State-sponsored campaigns aimed at helping employers and workers to identify discrimination and promote gender equality in Iranian workplaces. Iran has not amended its laws that violate women’s right to work, as well as their right to be free from discrimination in the workplace and in the hiring process. C. It is recommended that the Government ensures that women enjoy full freedom and rights to become equal partners in decision-making in society at large Women have a limited presence within decision-making bodies in Iran. Women are completely prohibited from holding the position of Supreme Leader. Candidates for the presidency in Iran must be what the constitution refers to as Rajol-E- Siasi (“political men”).33 Though many argue that the phrase as a whole could be understood as “political persons,” without a specification as to gender, the Guardian Council of the Constitution, a body of Islamic jurists responsible for vetting candidates for elections, has never approved a female candidate to stand in presidential elections or elections to the Assembly of Experts.34 Additionally, no woman has ever served on the Guardian Council (the body mandated to bring parliamentary resolutions in line with Shari’a and the Constitution and to oversee elections and vet candidates),35 nor on the Expediency Council (the body which serves as the Supreme Leader's advisory arm, formulating "general policies for the state" and overseeing the implementation of those policies on the behalf of the Supreme Leader).36 There are no legal limits laws on the ability of women to vote or become a candidate for parliament or the City and Village Councils. However, the Guardian Council is known to arbitrarily disqualify women candidates from running for election. For example, in the run-up to the 2020 elections, the Guardian Council reportedly disqualified 60 percent of female candidates. Election law has designated the Guardian Council as the arbitrator of complaints related to the election process or candidate vetting, which itself is the body responsible for the impugned decisions. 30 World Economic Forum, Global Gender Gap Report 2017, https://www.weforum.org/reports/the-global-gender-gap-report2017 31 World Bank, Women, Business and the Law 2019: A Decade of Reform, May 2019, https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/31327/WBL2019.pdf 32 Statistics Center of Iran <https://www.amar.org.ir/Portals/1/releases/lfs/LFS_1397.pdf> 33 Article 115, Constitution of Iran. 34 The council that should choose the Supreme Leader and its mandate is to monitor him. 35 In addition, the Guardian Council is responsible for overseeing elections and vetting candidates. 36 The body, whose members are all appointed by the Supreme Leader, was initially established as an arbitration body between parliament and the Guardian Council. 4

Select target paragraph3