The 1986 Press Law, amended in 2000, provides vague and broad content-based restrictions on traditional and online media. For example, news reports may only be published in pursuit of one of the five “legitimate objectives”, including “to campaign against manifestations of imperialistic culture” or “to propagate and promote genuine Islamic culture and sound ethical principles.”6 The law prohibits publishing content on matters, among others, relating to atheism, against the national security, dignity of interests of the State, insulting Islam or offending religious officials.7 It further limits the publication of material deemed critical of key political figures, including the Supreme Leader and President.8 The law also mentions that publications should “duly [observe] Islamic criteria and the best interests of the community”, these broad and vague conditions grant Iranian authorities with significant discretion to restrict the content of publications. On top of restrictions applied to the publication of information, the 1986 Press Law restricts the issuance of license to individuals who fulfil a number of broad and vaguely defined conditions, including “practical adherence to the constitution.”9 Although Article 168 of the Constitution stipulates that press crimes should be tried in the press court and before a jury, in recent years a large number of journalists have been tried in public and revolutionary courts for their media activities, notably on national security related charges.10 11 Additionally, while Article 4 of the 1986 Press Law states that "No government or nongovernmental authority has the right to impose pressure on the press or to censor and control the press in order to publish an article"12, there is no readily available information indicating that government or non-government officials have been tried under this Article. The Islamic Republic of Iran has not fully guaranteed the right to freedom of expression and opinion of independent media and ensured that journalists can exercise their profession without fear of being brought before courts. B. The Islamic Republic of Iran should release, rehabilitate and provide effective judicial redress and compensation for journalists imprisoned in contravention of articles 9 and 19 of the Covenant 6 The Press law: See more: Article 19, 8 The Press law: 9 Chapter 5 (Articles 8-22) The Press law: 10 Amnesty International, 11 Small Media, Digital Rights in Iran, UPR Submission, Session 34 : < > 12 Those who violate Article 4 will be sentenced to up to two years’ dismissal from office or to a permanent dismissal from public service if their violations are repeated. 7 2

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