Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran
A/70/411 para 100
Full recommendation:
Urges the authorities to recognize that dialogue and inclusive participation of all the citizens in
a diverse society can form the basis of enduring initiatives that address poverty and
development, and can also serve to strengthen protections for the rights of all ethnic minorities
in the country. He further encourages the authorities to ensure that the rights of the members of
the country’s most vulnerable communities are protected and respected.
Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1
A. Religious or ethnic minorities
Article 19 of the Constitution of Islamic Republic of Iran, guarantees that all people in Iran enjoy
equal rights, “regardless of the tribe or ethnic group to which they belong” and that “color, race,
language, and other such considerations shall not be grounds for special privileges.” Though this
article seemingly protects ethnic and linguistic minorities, the constitution omits religious or
belief identity as a protected characteristic. Additionally, article 14 of the Constitution sets out
that the government and Muslims in Iran are “duty-bound to treat non-Muslims in conformity
with ethical norms and the principles of Islamic justice and equity, and to respect their citizen
rights,”2 but this duty applies only to those “who refrain from engaging in conspiracy or activity
against Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran,”3 a charge that is regularly levelled against
certain religious minorities and other ethnic groups.
While it is technically possible to file non-discrimination complaints with the administration of
justice court, the article 90 commission in the parliament, and Committees for supervisions of
implementation of the Law on Respect for Legitimate Freedoms and Citizenship Rights, there is
no evidence that judicial actions are taken in response to complaints of denial of fundamental
human rights and freedoms on the basis of ethnic, religious, cultural or linguistic identities
Ethnic minorities, especially Kurds and Balochis, are over-represented in death penalty statistics.
Many of the offenses carrying the death penalty, in particular drug-related offenses and national
security offenses, are among the charges most commonly used to target and convict minorities.
CCPR.2.1.S.1; CCPR.2.2.S.1; CCPR.3.1.S.1; CCPR.3.1.S.4; CCPR.23.4.S.1
CCPR.2.1.P.2; CCPR.2.3.P.1; CCPR.3.1.P.3; CCPR.23.2.P.1
CCPR.2.3.O.4; CCPR.3.1.O.4; CCPR.18.2.S.1; CCPR.18.2.P.1; CCPR.18.2.O.1l; ESCR.2.2.S.1; ESCR.2.2.P.1; ESCR.2.2P.2;
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, General Principles (Chapter I, Article 14):


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