Concluding Observation Human Rights Committee CCPR/C/IRN/CO/3 para 30
Full recommendation:
The State party should ensure that all members of ethnic, religious and linguistic
minorities enjoy effective protection against discrimination and are able to enjoy their
own culture and use their own language in media and schools, participate in public
affairs and are provided with effective remedies against discrimination.
Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1
A. Ensure that all members of ethnic, religious and linguistic minorities enjoy effective
protection against discrimination and are provided with effective remedies against
discrimination
Article 14 of the Constitution sets out that the government and Muslims in Iran are “duty-bound
to treat non-Muslims in conformity with ethical norms and the principles of Islamic justice and
equity, and to respect their citizen rights.” 2 Additionally, although Article 19 of the Constitution
protects the equal rights of “ethnic group or tribe” regardless or “colour, race, language, and the
like”, it omits an explicit provision recognising religion or belief as a protected characteristic
against discrimination.3 Article 23 of the Constitution stipulates that “the investigation of
individuals’ beliefs is forbidden, and no one may be molested or taken to task simply for holding
a certain belief.” 4
These protections, however, only apply to those “who refrain from engaging in conspiracy or
activity against Islam and the Islamic Republic of Iran.”
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran names the Twelver Ja’fari School of Shia Islam
as the state religion. Only Muslim minorities (including Sunnis), Zoroastrian, Jewish and
Christian Iranians are recognized under the Constitution.5 Because there are no laws
1
CCPR.18.1.S.1; CCPR.18.2.S.1; CCPR.18.3.S.1; CCPR.18.4.S.1; CCPR.25.1.S.3; CCPR.27.1.S.1; CCPR.27.2.S.1;
ESCR.2.2.S.1
CCPR.18.1.P.1; CCPR.18.1.P.2; CCPR.18.2.P.1; CCPR.18.3.P.1; CCPR.18.4.P.1; CCPR.25.1.P.1; CCPR.27.1.P.1;
CCPR.27.1.P.2; CCPR.27.2.P.1; CCPR.27.2.P.2; ESCR.2.2.P.2;
CCPR.18.1.O.4; CCPR.18.1.O.5; CCPR.18.1.O.6; CCPR.18.2.O.1; CCPR.18.2.O.2; CCPR.18.3.O.1; CCPR.18.4.O.1;
CCPR.18.4.O.2; CCPR.25.1.O.1; CCPR.27.1.O.2; CCPR.27.2.O.2; ESCR.2.2.O.1
2
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, English translation, https://irandataportal.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/constitution-english-1368.pdf
3
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, English translation, https://irandataportal.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/constitution-english-1368.pdf
4
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, English translation, https://irandataportal.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/constitution-english-1368.pdf
5
Articles 12 and 13 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran, English translation, https://irandataportal.syr.edu/wpcontent/uploads/constitution-english-1368.pdf

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