inheritance,5 and the right to divorce.6 In marriage, the Civil Code provides rights to the husband over those of the wife,7 notably by establishing that the position of the ‘head of the family’ is the exclusive prerogative of the husband. Under Iranian law the husband is entitled to control aspects of his wife’s life8 and demand that she performs her ‘duties’.9 Additionally, women and girls have limited access to recreational environments in Iran, including access to places to practice sports. According to reports, some cities in Iran have started to establish women-only parks, one of the most emblematic examples being the “Mother’s Paradise” park in Tehran.10 11 Currently, at least 20 cities in Iran have ‘women-only parks’. Gender-segregation extends into other areas of leisure and recreation in Iran.12 As a consequence, women and girls have limited access to public spaces where they may be able to practice physical activity and sports. Women’s participation in sports is also restricted. Women are not allowed to practice sports such as wrestling and boxing.13 In May 2019, the prosecutor for Isfahan stated that women were prohibited from riding bicycles.14 For sports that women are allowed to practice, budget allocation and facilities are generally limited.15 16 A significant number of women’s sports are banned from being broadcasted on State television.17 While not written into law, there in an effective ban on women attending sport events in Iran,18 19 although a few exceptions have been seen recently.20 21 Women attending sports events despite the ban have faced arrests.22 The Government of the Islamic Republic of Iran has made limited efforts to increase women’s and girls’ access to leisure and sports. For example, the government 5 Articles 861 to 948, Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 6 Article 1133, Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 7 Articles 1102 to 1119, 1133 to 1142, Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 8 For instance, under Article 1117 of the Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran “The husband can prevent his wife from occupations or technical work which is incompatible with the family interests or the dignity of himself or his wife.” 9 Article 1108, Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. 10 Radio Free Europe, 11 12 Independent Persian, 13 Ibid. 14 Center for Human Rights in Iran, 15 ISNA, 16 17 France 24, 18 BBC, 19 Human Rights Watch, 20 Amnesty International, 21 Associated Press, 22 Human Rights Watch, 2

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