Concluding Observation Committee on the Rights of the Child CRC/C/IRN/CO/3-4 para
60(d)
Full recommendation
In the light of its general comment No. 18 (2014) on harmful practices, adopted jointly with the
Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, take measures to enforce
article 663 of the Islamic Penal Code and to stop, effectively, the practice of female genital
mutilation throughout the country.
Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1
Article 663 of the Islamic Penal Code (2013) prohibits cutting or damaging a woman's genitals
and sentences the practice with the payment of a diyat, or fine.2 The amount of a diyat is based
on the country’s currency value and depends on the gender of the victim: the Islamic Penal Code
stipulates that a man shall receive the full amount of the diyat while women shall only receive
half. According to Article 663, in case of such genital mutilation, the sentence of payment of
diyat amounts to half of the full diyat granted to woman, in other words, ¼ of the amount of the
diyat allocated to men. Additionally, Articles 706 and 708 criminalise acts that reduce the
possibility of lezate mogharebe (the joy of intercourse) or pregnancy.3
Despite these legal safeguards, the practice of female genital mutilation (FGM) is considered a
tradition within several provinces in Iran, notably in Kurdistan, Western Azerbaijan,
Kermanshah, Ilam, Lorestan and Hormozgan. Reportedly, in Hormozgan province, 60% of
women have been subjected to FGM.4 5 According to local media reports, especially in southern
Iran, the practice of FGM still regularly occurs.6
Despite the publication of a number of reports7 indicating that field studies have been conducted
by research institutions on FGM in Iran, there is no indication that the government has
implemented a specific program to eradicate it. Additionally, there is no mechanism to ensure the
full implementation of the prohibition of FGM in Iran.

Commented [MR1]: The report of Minority Rights Group
“Beyond the Veil” says that “Article 664 of the Iran’s Islamic
Penal Code states that cutting the labia, whether in whole
or in part, is illegal and punishable by law”. Does it complete
Article 663? If so we can also add it here
Commented [RM2R1]: No, the topic of article 664 is
something else and not related to this issue.
Commented [MR3]: Is diyat and diyeh the same and refers
to “blood money”?
Commented [RM4R3]: Diyeh is whole category in Islamic
Penal Code, that is generally "Money or fine". Diyat is the
plural of diyeh. If it comes under the topics of murder (or a
life of someone) it would be called blood money, but
translating it to blood money is not covering all aspect of it.
It's usually the cost of a harm that is responsible of
offender. For example, if I break someones arm in a fight,
the court based on the IPC can convict me for diyeh of
breaking his arm. That diyeh is calculate based on the
country's currency. Each year the judiciary would announce
the rate of diyeh based on country's currency value.
Commented [MR5R3]: Thank you for the explanation!
Commented [MR6]: I am not sure I understand this
sentence, does this mean that the sentence for perpetrating
female genital mutilation is to pay half of the full diyat of
the woman? What is the amount of a full diyat?
Commented [RM7R6]: That diyeh is calculated based on
the country's currency. Each year the judiciary would
announce the rate of diyeh based on country's currency
value. The additional issue here is that the full diyeh is
women is already half of man (based on the IPC) and in this
subject it mean, the fine would be 1/4 of a man's full diyeh
(a level of gender-discrimination)
Because in article 661, which is talking about male's issue,
the punishment is a full diyeh.

1
CRC.19.1.S.1; CCPR.7.1.S.1
CRC.19.1.P.1; CRC.19.1.P.2; CRC.34.1.P.2; CCPR.7.1.P.1
CRC.19.1.O.3; CRC.34.1.O.2
2
Islamic Penal Code (2013):<https://shenasname.ir/subjects/salamat/1571-mojazat92 >
3
Minority Rights Group, https://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MRG_CFR_Iran_EN_Sept191.pdf
4
Ahmady, K., A Comprehensive Research Study on Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C) in Iran, 2015.
5
Minority Rights Group, https://minorityrights.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/09/MRG_CFR_Iran_EN_Sept191.pdf
6
Sobhe Sahel, a local newspaper in Hormozgan province. < https://sobhesahel.com/news/27552/%22%20/h >
7
< https://www.rouydad24.com/fa/news/203470/ >

Commented [MR8R6]: Thanks ! I added your information in
text.

1

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