Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran
A/HRC/43/61 para 68(i)
Full recommendation:
The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government, the judiciary and the parliament:
Ensure that lethal force is used only when strictly unavoidable to protect life, in accordance with
principle 9 of the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement
Officials, and that everyone is allowed to participate in lawful and peaceful assemblies, in
accordance with article 21 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights;
Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1
A. The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government, the judiciary and the
parliament: Ensure that lethal force is used only when strictly unavoidable to
protect life, in accordance with principle 9 of the Basic Principles on the Use of
Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials
As set out in principle 9 of the Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law
Enforcement Officials, the intentional lethal use of firearms is permitted only when strictly
unavoidable in order to protect life.
The 1993 Law on the Use of Weapons by Agents of the Armed Forces In Case of Necessity is
the only law regulating the use of lethal force by Iranian law enforcement and security forces.
Under Article 11 of this law, the military and security forces (including the Revolutionary
Guards Corps and the Basij militia) “shall use weapons as directed by the law in instances when
they cooperate with the Police Force under the law and during assignments given to them”,
which is not further clarified.2 There is no information to suggest that executive regulations to
implement Article 11 have been drawn up. The lack of clarification around the provisions given
under Article 11 of the 1993 hinders accountability for law enforcement and security forces who
used weapons against demonstrators and superiors who decided on “assignments”.

1
CCPR.1.S.2 ; CCPR.21.1.S.1
CCPR.6.1.P.1; CCPR.21.1.P.2;
CCPR.6.1.O.2 ; CCPR.21.1.O.2; CCPR.21.1.O.3;
2
Law on the Use of Weapons by Agents of the Armed Forces in Case of Necessity (1993), as referenced by Amnesty
International, submission to the Human Rights Committee, 2011,
https://tbinternet.ohchr.org/Treaties/CCPR/Shared%20Documents/IRN/INT_CCPR_NGO_IRN_103_9081_E.pdf

1

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