Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences
E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3 para 75 (a)
Full recommendation:
In order to promote and support the empowerment of women in all spheres of life, it is
recommended that the Government: Promote women’s participation in the formal labour market
by ensuring equality of opportunity and eliminating discriminatory laws and practices related to
women’s work.
Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1
In the Islamic Republic of Iran, a husband can prevent his spouse from pursuing an occupation
which he believes to be against family values or harmful to his or her reputation.2 There is no
law prohibiting an employer from seeking a husband’s permission for a woman to work and
employers have been reportedly requiring engaged or married women to provide a written
statement of permission from their husbands in order to be hired.3
A number of provisions under Iranian labour laws protect the right to work without
discrimination,4 yet forbid women from being employed in ‘dangerous, arduous or harmful
work’.5 Additionally, women do not have access to certain positions in the Judiciary or the
government. For example, women cannot be judges of the courts.6 Job benefits, such as social
security and health insurance, family bonuses or paid overtime, inhere to the man.78 The Iranian
labour code also does not provide legal safeguards against discrimination in the hiring process.
There is a mechanism under the oversight of the Ministry of Labour that is tasked with receiving
and analysing complaints related to labour standards. There is no readily available information
with regards to the number of received complaints of gender-based discrimination when
accessing employment or within the workplace, or whether such complaints have been
addressed. There are no official and readily available reports of cases of discrimination in the
workplace in the Islamic Republic of Iran, but in practice, non-discrimination provisions

1

ESCR.2.2.S.1; ESCR.6.1.S.1; ESCR.6.1.S.3; ESCR.2.2.P.3; ESCR.6.1.P.1; CCPR.2.1.O.1; ESCR.6.1.O.2
Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran, Art.1117 < https://shenasname.ir/laws/6664 >
3
Human Rights Watch, ‘It’s A Men’s Club’: Discrimination against Women in Iran’s Labour Market, May 2017
4
Articles 6, The Labor Law: < https://shenasname.ir/laws/kar/1017 > Article 28 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of
Iran, https://irandataportal.syr.edu/wp-content/uploads/constitution-english-1368.pdf
5
The Islamic Republic of Iran, Iranian Labour Code, 1990, Articles 6 and 75.
6
Regulations for the appointment of judges of the country: < http://rooznamehrasmi.ir/Laws/ShowLaw.aspx?Code=927 >
7
Articles 1102 to 1119, 1133 to 1142, Civil Code of the Islamic Republic of Iran. https://iranhrdc.org/the-civil-code-of-theislamic-republic-of-iran/
8
Article 58 of the Social Security Act (adopted on June 24, 1975, and its subsequent amendments): <
https://shenasname.ir/laws/tamin/1024 >
2

1

Select target paragraph3