schools and cities when it comes to access to and preponderance of physical facilities. Media
reports show that many schools do not have playrooms,10 and that urban planning often fails to
address the issue of child-friendly environments.11
Although Iranian law protects social and cultural rights for adults and children alike, it contains
discriminatory provisions between men and women, ultimately resulting in unequal access to
recreational activities between boys and girls. Article 3 of the constitution obliges the
government to ensure the universal rights of individuals (both men and women), judicial justice
for all, and equal protection by law for the public.12 In addition, Article 20 of the Constitution
emphasises that all people of the nation, both men and women, are equally protected by law, and
enjoy all human, political, economic, social and cultural rights, in accordance with “Islamic
standards.”13 Article 21 of the Constitution obliges the government to guarantee the rights of
women in all respects, in accordance with “Islamic standards.”14 While these provisions
supposedly safeguard the human rights of women and protect them from discrimination, such
legal guarantees exist as long as they are in conformity with “Islamic criteria.”. Room for
interpretation allowed under qualifications such as “in conformity with Islamic criteria” has often
resulted in provisions that discriminate or have a discriminatory impact on various grounds,
including gender.
Women and girls have limited access to recreational environments in Iran. According to reports,
some cities in Iran have begun establishing women-only parks, chief among them the “Mother’s
Paradise” park in Tehran.1516 The construction of such parks is based on urban planning
implemented by municipalities, who develop and design the parks.17 At least 20 cities in Iran
currently have women's parks. While they give women and girls the opportunity to participate in
recreational activities, gender-segregation does not imply equality, even in the realm of
recreation.18
Women in general do not enjoy the same protections as men in Iranian law. This inequality can
also be observed in the realm of sports. Women are, for example, banned from engaging in
certain contact sports including wrestling and boxing.19 and in some cases have restricted ability
to watch men's sports in person. Inequalities also exist in the areas of budget allocation and
access to facilities.20 Though all sport majors in Iran have a federation, women's sports often
10

Hamshahri Newspaper
Report focusing on this issue and talking about shortcomings in Iranian. Published through Tabriz city hall website (East
Azerbaijan province)
12
Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran
13
Ibid.
14
Ibid.
15
Radio Free Europe
16
Ibid.
17
https://titreshahr.com/fa/news/5407/
18
https://www.independentpersian.com/node/63061/
19
Ibid.
20
https://www.isna.ir/news/99052417613/
11

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