Special Rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences E/CN.4/2006/61/Add.3 para 73 (i) Full recommendation: In order to enhance women’s access to justice through a transparent legal and judiciary reform it is recommended that the Government: Abolish requirements that women present eyewitnesses in order to prove that they have been subjected to violence and allow women to prove violence through medical or police reports and other credible evidence; Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators1 Article 318 of the Code of Criminal Procedure refers to the fact that the method of proving and substantiating criminal complaints is through the evidence determined by the Islamic Penal Code. The Islamic Penal Code (IPC), approved in May 2013, in Articles 160 to 213 has introduced and explained the process of using evidence in criminal matters. For example, Article 160 of this law, in defining the evidence of a crime, i.e., in defining the reasons for proving whether a crime has taken place or has not taken place, points out that there are four ways that one can prove whether a crime took place; the first is through the confession of the accused, the second is through the testimony of those who witnessed the crime, the third is testimony under oath2, and the fourth is through the knowledge of the judge. In addition to the above articles of the IPC, the Code of Criminal Procedure provides the procedural steps that can be taken to detect a crime, to find the cause and clarify the perpetrator of the crime and facts, a set of which can be effective in proving whether a crime has occurred or not. For example, Articles 123 to 167 of this law provide for the possibility of inspection of the crime scene, local investigation, inspection and expertise to detect a crime, Articles 168 to 203 of this law refer to the investigation of the accused, and Articles 204 to 216 of the same law provide for the possibility of interviewing witnesses and informants in order to determine proof of a crime. The above shows that at present, presenting witnesses to prove violence is not the only possibility of proving a crime, and other evidence, such as a police report or forensic report, might affects the proceedings.3 However, because in crimes of violence against women (especially in the case of domestic or community violence), women are often denied even the 1 CCPR.2.1.S.1; CCPR.3.1.S.4; CCPR.14.1.S.1; CCPR.14.3.S.1; CCPR.2.1.P.1; CCPR.3.1.P.3; CCPR.14.3.P.1; CCPR.3.1.O.4; CCPR.14.3.O.1 2 a situation in which a person does not necessarily witness what happened, but swears that the accused is guilty. 3 Article 161 and 162 of Islamic Penal Code: https://shenasname.ir/subjects/salamat/1571-mojazat92 1

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