Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran
A/HRC/40/67 para 70(k)
Full recommendation:
The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government and Parliament implement the
recommendations reflected in the opinions of the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, and
address patterns of violations highlighted by the Working Group with respect to dual and foreign
nationals.
Assessment
Since 2016, the Working Group on Arbitrary Detention (WGAD) has found at least 38 cases of
detention arbitrary in the Islamic Republic of Iran. Despite these opinions, many remain in
detention as of February 2021.1
Additionally, the WGAD “has repeatedly found a practice in the Islamic Republic of Iran of
targeting foreign nationals for detention.”2 Despite the Working Group opinions concluding that
their detentions are arbitrary, foreign and dual nationals Mr. Siamak Namazi3 and Mr.
Mohammad Bager Namazi4 (Opinion no. 49/2017)5 remain in detention as of March 2021. Ms.
Nazanin Zaghari-Ratcliffe6 (Opinion no. 28/2016)7 was released at the end of her detention
sentence but currently faces new charges.8 Mr. Ahmad Reza Djalali whose detention was found
arbitrary by the WGAD in 2017,9 faces imminent execution.10 Mr. Robert Levinson, whose
detention was found arbitrary by the Working Group in 2016,11 reportedly died in Iranian
custody.12 Other foreign and dual nationals remain in detention in the Islamic Republic of Iran,
including Mr. Morad Tahbaz13 and Mr. Kamran Ghaderi.14

1

Including but not limited to: Mr. Arash Sadeghi (Opinion no. 19/2018), Ms. Golrokh Ebrahimi Iraee (Opinion no. 33/2019), Ms.
Atena Daemi (Opinion no. 83/2018). See more: United for Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/
2
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinion No. 52/2018, para 82.
3
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/2157/
4
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/2400/
5
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinion no. 49/2017,
https://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Detention/Opinions/Session79/A_HRC_WGAD_2017_49_EN.pdf
6
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/2481/
7
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinion no. 28/2016,
https://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?si=A/HRC/WGAD/2016/28
8
The Guardian, https://www.theguardian.com/news/2021/mar/07/nazanin-zaghari-ratcliffe-reportedly-freed-but-may-face-newcharges
9
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinion no. 92/2017,
https://www.ohchr.org/EN/Issues/Detention/Pages/Opinions80thSession.aspx
10
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/3126/
11
Working Group on Arbitrary Detention, Opinion no. 50/2016,
https://ap.ohchr.org/documents/dpage_e.aspx?si=A/HRC/WGAD/2016/50
12
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/3488/
13
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/4043/
14
United For Iran, https://ipa.united4iran.org/en/prisoner/2894/

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