Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran A/72/322 para 114 Full recommendation: The Special Rapporteur recommends that the Government should strengthen Bar associations and bar councils so that they are self-regulatory and function independently. That would enable them to regulate the profession without discrimination and to develop tools to protect its members from being persecuted for their independent professional decisions or views. Assessment using Impact Iran human rights indicators 1 The 1955 Law on the Independence of Lawyers established the independence of the Iranian Bar association and granted lawyers immunity from prosecution for carrying out their profession.2 3 However, following its dismantlement after the Iranian Revolution and its subsequent reinstitution, throughout the years the Bar association has been under the increased control of the Judiciary.4 Additionally, the Iranian Government repeatedly tried to amend the bylaws of the Bar Association, in an attempt to reduce the independence of lawyers.5 6 7 8 Most recently, a draft bill presented in May 2020 sought to replace the Bar association with the ”Supreme Council of the Coordination of Lawyers’ Affairs”, which would have been composed of government appointed judicial officials.9 It has to be noted that the Bar association was not involved in the drafting process of the text.10 As of February 2021, the bill is still under consideration. The Judiciary is in charge of reviewing the lawyers’ qualifications and confirming the issuance of licenses to newly qualified lawyers.11 In November 2020, the Judiciary issued a directive allowing it to investigate complaints against lawyers instead of the Bar association’s own disciplinary tribunal.12 In 2000, the Judiciary established the General Office for the Supervision of Lawyers, Experts, Family Counselors and Official Translators in accordance with Article 187 of the Law of the 1 CCPR.14.1.S.2; CCPR.14.1.P.3; CCPR.14.1.O.5; CCPR.14.1.O.6; CCPR.14.1.O.8 Abdorrahman Boroumand Center, https://www.iranrights.org/newsletter/issue/97 3 Parliament of the Islamic Republic of Iran https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/94754 4 See more: Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, https://iranhrdc.org/iranian-bar-associations-struggle-for-independence/ 5 Report of the Special Rapporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran, May 2015, https://undocs.org/A/HRC/28/70 6 Human Rights Watch, https://www.hrw.org/news/2009/07/16/iran-halt-moves-curtail-lawyers 7 Lawyers for Lawyers, https://lawyersforlawyers.org/en/iran-lawyers-call-upon-iranian-authorities-to-revoke-controversial-bill/ 8 ILNA News https://www.ilna.news/fa/tiny/news-795247 9 Radio Farda, https://en.radiofarda.com/a/more-than-12-000-lawyers-in-iran-reject-move-to-dismantle-barassociation/30590110.html 10 ILNA News https://www.ilna.news/fa/tiny/news-892761 11 The Supreme Disciplinary Court for Judges has the authority to vet lawyers. https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/92825 12 Vokalapress, https://vokalapress.ir/?p=7708 2 1

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