the independence and neutrality of the Judiciary.7 As a consequence, the right to legal assistance of one’s choosing in such cases is particularly limited. Defendants in national security cases are often denied access to a lawyer in the investigative stage of the judicial process. In the hundreds of cases of individuals arrested for political reasons or suspected for ordinary crimes that the Abdorrahman Boroumand Center has investigated, all detainees were interrogated without the presence of an attorney.8 Reports have shown a pattern of reported cases where prisoners remain incarcerated without proper access to legal representation at all stages of their trial process. 9 10 B. Ensure that national laws support the independence of lawyers and release all lawyers that appear to have been imprisoned for protected activities in defence of their clients In law, the Iranian Bar Association is independent since 1997, when a board of directors was appointed through The Law on Conditions for Obtaining the Attorney’s License, yet in practice, the Judiciary is in charge of vetting the candidates for appointment to this organ and lawyers have no immunity.11 According to reports that have been published in recent years, a number of lawyers and judges are scrutinized by security intelligence institutions.12 According to reports that have been recorded and published in recent years, a number of lawyers, mainly those that acted in defense of human rights activists like Hoda Amid, Payam Derafshan and Farokh Forouzan have been persecuted and arrested by Iranian intelligence institutions.13 Cases where lawyers have acted in defense of human rights activists and members of minorities are the most common instances where the Iranian authorities have actively engaged in repressing them through detention and incarceration. 14 Recommendation Status: This recommendation has NOT been implemented.15 7 “Iranian Lawyers Criticize Proposal to Deprive Defendants of Right to Choose Counsel,” Human Rights Activists in Iran, June 6, 2018 ( 8 Abdorrahman Boroumand Center, joint submission to the Human Rights Committee from the Abdorrahman Boroumand Center, Iran Human Rights Documentation Center, Impact Iran, Human Rights Activists in Iran, 2020, 9 HRANA 10 HRANA 11 12 HRANA 13 CSHR 14 Radio Farda and Amnesty 15 For more please see: and 2

Select target paragraph3